Trisys Technologies

Broadcast Solutions

Broadcast media, encompassing the distribution of information through TV, radio, and location-based transmissions, has undergone substantial changes, reflecting prominently in industry statistics. As a fundamental element of mass media, the term historically referred specifically to electronic media, such as television and radio. These mediums were dedicated to transmitting content in both audio and video formats, reaching a diverse and extensive audience.

Over-the-Top (OTT) technology

Over the last decade, a pivotal transformation in the broadcast media industry has been the rise of content streaming platforms like Hotstar, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, driven by Over-The-Top (OTT) technology. OTT tech is software enabling internet-based content consumption. This shift has significantly challenged traditional broadcast media, which relies on conventional methods for content distribution.


The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) initially introduced the SDI professional video standard in 1989. Since its inception, six revised SDI standards have been issued, and one is presently in the development phase. The chronological order of introduction for these SDI standards is as follows:


HDMI, which stands for High Definition Multimedia Interface, is the predominant high-definition signal used for transmitting both audio and video through a single cable. Widely utilized in both commercial AV setups and households, HDMI connects various devices like digital TVs, DVD players, BluRay players, gaming consoles, and streaming devices like Apple TV.

While traditionally associated with home entertainment, HDMI is now increasingly integrated into laptops and PCs, making it a standard choice for corporate and commercial markets. Its applications extend to education, presentations, digital signage, and retail displays, facilitating the transmission of high-quality audio and video signals between devices.

The standard 14mm version of the HDMI connector, known as ‘Type A,’ is available as either a plug or male connector on the cable. Typically, HDMI cables have plugs at both ends, with Type A sockets on AV devices like TVs, Blu-Ray players, and gaming consoles.

The Type A connector is the most common and is found on the majority of audio-visual equipment, including professional distribution devices like HDMI distribution amplifiers, matrix devices, and signal switchers. Additionally, there are smaller HDMI versions—HDMI Mini (Type C) and HDMI Micro (Type D)—suited for compact devices like smartphones and tablets.

Despite its widespread use, HDMI has distance limitations. When employing Category 1 ‘standard’ HDMI cables, it’s advisable to limit lengths to around 10 meters. For longer distances, high-grade Category 2 cables can be used, allowing successful transmission up to 15 meters.


Audio pertains to sound or the reproduction of sound. More specifically, it denotes the spectrum of frequencies perceptible by the human ear, typically ranging from about 20Hz to 20kHz. Memorizing these values can be beneficial—20Hz represents the lowest-pitched (bass) sound audible, while 20kHz signifies the highest pitch detectable by humans.


Audio involves numerous interfaces, spanning digital and analog realms. These interfaces find application in various contexts, from home theaters and portable devices to professional audio mixing boards utilized by DJs and other audio experts. While diverse, most audio connector types share a user-friendly characteristic, designed for easy connection and disconnection. Manufacturers of consumer electronics prioritize uncomplicated interfaces, allowing average users to connect and disconnect effortlessly, avoiding the need for tightening thumbscrews or manipulating tabs and latches. This emphasis on simplicity poses a challenge for manufacturers striving to strike a balance between convenience and performance.

¼-inch (6.3mm) and ¼-inch TRS

Frequently employed in professional audio settings, the connector also referred to as a phone connector, earned its name from its historical use by telephone operators in connecting telephone lines. Featuring a tip/ring/sleeve design similar to the 3.5mm connector, it is larger in both length and diameter. The 1/4-inch connectors can have either a tip and sleeve or a tip, ring, and sleeve (TRS) configuration. TRS connections are utilized for balanced audio lines or, depending on the equipment, for stereo sound. Widely found in musical instruments, especially guitars, and various staging devices such as effects pedals, mixing consoles, speakers, and amplifiers.


The 3.5mm connector, often referred to as a 1/8-inch connector or mini-plug, is a small, slim metal plug capable of transmitting one, two, or three signals. A concentric band of insulating material separates the tip from the sleeve, with stereo or audio/video versions featuring one or two additional metal bands, known as rings. Widely utilized in computers and portable devices for mono or stereo audio, these connectors serve various purposes such as speakers, line-in/line-out connections, and microphones in a computer’s sound card. Portable devices commonly employ the 3.5mm interface for headphone line-out connections or for linking to an auxiliary input on an amplifier. Camcorders often use the “three-pole” version of the 3.5mm plug, equipped with a tip and two rings, capable of transmitting video along with right/left stereo audio.

3.5mm Optical Mini Plug

Resembling the standard 3.5mm connector in size, the 3.5mm Optical Mini Plug is specifically crafted for digital audio applications. It is frequently encountered on Apple® computers and certain portable audio devices. Adapters are commonly used to convert this connector to a standard TOSLINK® connector.


The RCA connector is utilized in various audio applications, with S/PDIF (Sony®/Philips Digital Interface) serving as the “red book” standard for digital audio signal transfer. An S/PDIF coaxial cable supports the transmission of linear PCM or multi-channel Dolby® AC-3/DTS® digital content. For dual-channel stereo audio, a pair of RCA connectors carries the analog composite audio signal to the left and right channels. In home theater setups, RCA is commonly employed for powered subwoofer connections. In professional audio applications, when integrated into an XLR to RCA cable, it facilitates the connection of unbalanced sources to balanced XLR inputs. This versatile cable is used for linking tape decks, CD/DVD players to mixing consoles and amplifiers, and connecting balanced line outputs from mixing consoles to unbalanced line inputs for recorders and amplifiers.


TOSLINK is an optical interface designed for transmitting digital audio signals. Developed by Toshiba, TOSLINK is a registered trademark of the company. The TOSLINK (or EIAJ optical) connector features a small, round optical conductor housed in a squarish connector body. Initially created for use exclusively with Toshiba CD players, it has gained widespread adoption by various manufacturers and is now a standard feature on numerous AV sources, receivers, and surround sound equipment. Despite utilizing fiber optic cable, TOSLINK has a maximum cable length limitation of approximately 5 meters due to the low power of the LEDs used in transceivers.


The XLR connector finds widespread use in various professional audio applications. Originally crafted by ITT Cannon, the typical configuration is a 3-pin connector designed for “balanced” audio signals. When male and female XLR connectors are connected, the contact is first made on pin 1 (ground) before any other pins, ensuring system protection. Balanced audio signals, facilitated by XLR connections, provide excellent defense against EMI noise and can cover long distances. Consequently, XLR connections are frequently employed in microphones, mixers, amplifiers, and other professional audio devices.


Banana plugs are commonly employed to establish speaker wire connections on amplifiers, speakers, and audio wall plates. Characterized by a metal pin that bows out in the middle, resembling a banana, these plugs are typically used in pairs. They connect with binding posts commonly found on higher-end amplifiers and speakers.